Mohan J, ed. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). Retrieved 18 August 2014. 1. a white crystalline powder used as a central nervous system stimulant. Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II stimulant by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), which means it has a high potential for abuse and is available legally only by prescription. PMC 3236098 Freely accessible. Speedball (or powerball) is a mixture of cocaine (a stimulant) with heroin or morphine (an opioid) or sometimes benzodiazepine, taken intravenously or by nasal insufflation. Many different names are used for amphetamines. ISBN 9780195030570. Many people use it illegally, but it is occasionally used legally by prescription to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obesity as "Desoxyn". 318, 321. Lisdexamfetamine is the same drug (dextroamphetamine) BUT is bound to an Amino acid L-Lysine and needs to be metabolized in order to convert it into useable D-Amphetamine, it takes time for this conversion to happen leading to a prolonged T-Max and C-max and more stable overall dosage and effects throughout the entire serum level. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. The Emerging Role of Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 in the Functional Regulation of Monoamine Transporters and Dopaminergic Activity (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |. [7] Amphetamine is a chiral compound. In reality, "Jay" had in fact increased his speed, but at the cost o… Many of these effects are not life-threatening, but potential dangers exist fo… Lower doses tend to increase focus and productivity while higher doses tend to increase sociability, sexual desire, and euphoria. 1 (3): 172–182. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). Chemically, it is the parent compound of the substituted amphetamines, a group which includes a diverse range of substances like bupropion, phenmetrazine, MDMA, and DOx. Synapse, 39 1, 32-41. doi: 10.1002/1098-2396(20010101)39:1<32::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-3. ISBN 9780071624428. 2. any of a group of drugs closely related to this substance and having similar actions, such as methamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). 27 (6): 479–496. [4] Speed, ulični je naziv za prilično širok spektar kemijske obitelji metamfetamina. "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. Amphetamine has a high abuse potential and can cause dependence with chronic use. [11][12] PMID 20997404. During 2012, approximately 5.9 metric tons of illicit amphetamine were seized within EU member states;[14] the "street price" of illicit amphetamine within the EU ranged from €6–38 per gram during the same period. [14] Among European Union (EU) member states, 1.2 million young adults used illicit amphetamine or methamphetamine in 2013. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is used in all … "Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective". Subjective effects include stimulation, focus enhancement, motivation enhancement, increased libido, appetite suppression, and euphoria. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. J. Psychopharmacol. "15". All amphetamines, whether legal or illegal, activate chemical processes throughout the brain and body and so “speed up” most every bodily function. Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Using speed can lead to health, social and financial problems. Chem. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine … [5][6] Additionally, it sees widespread illicit use as a performance enhancing agent and recreational substance. Sci. Heal, D. J., Smith, S. L., Gosden, J., & Nutt, D. J. These include: 1. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.x. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Narcolepsy: current treatment options and future approaches |. p. 78. The reinforcing and motivational salience-promoting ef… Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review. [10], During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD |, Bowyer JF, Hanig JP (November 2014). Amphetamine. In Stimulants (pp. Speed is a dangerous, illicit drug that can cause many of the same effects as cocaine, crack, and other stimulants. There are many units of measurement for speed. Retrieved 13 October 2013. As its addictive properties became known, governments began to place strict controls on its sale. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(2), 123. PMID 15955613. They cause communication between the brain and the body to accelerate. Het gebruik is geestelijk verslavend. When an object changes speed, it gets faster or … Crystal Meth, also known as crystal or meth. Central nervous system stimulants: historical aspects and clinical effects. Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). Speed drug also known by the names; upper, phet, billy, whiz, sulph, base, dexedrine, or dexamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system effect which begins within 20 minutes and lasts for 4-6 hours. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1), CD003026-CD003026. Independent research (e.g. Speed also goes by the street names “Ice, Crystal meth and Shabu ” 2 The drug works using Dopamine. 10 Things You Should Know About Speed drug. [33] However, high-dose amphetamine can cause indirect neurotoxicity as a result of increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and autoxidation of dopamine. To find speed , = where is the distance and is the time that has gone by.. Units of measurement for speed. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. Marihuana, also known as grass, ganja, weed or MJ. Depending on purity, amphetamine doses will vary. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887, but its psychostimulant effects were not discovered until 1929. Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective. "VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs of abuse". [41] No formal studies in humans have been carried out and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. Temperature (Austin). Speed (methamphetamine, C10H15N) is a potent and addictive central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system side effects. The hyperthermia and the hypertension produced by high doses amphetamines are a primary cause of transient breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in concomitant regional neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in laboratory animals. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. 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